Mendis, Secchi and Reeves (2015)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Mendis, Secchi and Reeves (2015)
Title: A Legal and Empirical Study into the Intellectual Property Implications of 3D Printing
Author(s): Mendis, D., Secchi, D., Reeves, P.
Year: 2015
Citation: Mendis, D., et al. (2015). A Legal and Empirical Study into the Intellectual Property Implications of 3D Printing.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This two-part Study adopts a quantitative and qualitative approach respectively.

For the qualitative study, data was collected from 17 websites. The analysis established that the total number of files shared on the platforms was 385,118 and the total number of users 48,715. Data was retrieved on January 2014 and covers six years, from January 2008 to January 2014. Study II is qualitative and presents six case studies in various industrial sectors. The researchers interviewed key stakeholders.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2008 to 2014
Funder(s):
  • Intellectual Property Office

Abstract

The Executive Summary reports the purpose, scope, methodology and key findings from two complementary studies on the intellectual property implications of 3D printing. The two Studies provide for an overarching empirical and legal analysis into the current position of 3D printing. Particularly it offers new data and findings on the exploration of online platforms dedicated to 3D printing as well as its impact in selected industries. The Executive Summary details the findings of the research, conclusions and recommendations for the UK Government; Online Platforms and Industry.

Main Results of the Study

The present research and the accompanying data concludes that taking into account accessibility to materials, sophisticated printing machines, costs and economics for the average user, the impact of this technology will not be felt among the general public for a few years to come. Although it is too early to tell when this will happen, the researchers conclude that a technological breakthrough is needed to make 3D printing an everyday reality.In the meantime the authors have made recommendations for a working group to monitor and advise the industry on developments.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

It is recommended that the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) establish a Working Group to cover the various IP rights which may need to be tackled in the future. The Working Group should also provide clarity on the status of CAD files and how they can best be used in industry. The Group should also consider how best to tackle the traceability of 3D printed spare parts.It is recommended that online platforms provide more awareness and understanding of the different types of licences. This can be achieved by explaining the nuances relating to each licence in clear and simple language, rather than simply ‘encouraging’ the user to adopt a particular type of licence. Furthermore, online platforms can assign the most appropriate licence as a default with ‘opt-out’ as an option.One recommendation for industry would be to adopt secure streaming of 3D CAD files via an Application Programming Interface (API) thereby embracing a ‘pay-per-print’ business model. Manufacturers could also consider licensing CAD files more widely, thereby opening up doors to a range of outlets selling 3D CAD files. This will avoid locking the manufacturer into an agreement through a system such as a ‘one-stop-shop’ for (spare) parts. It is recommended that the automotive industry give consideration to the traceability of 3D printed spare parts, particularly in relation to the safety and usability of the spare part.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 6
Level of aggregation: Case Studies
Period of material under study: 2008 to 2014


Sample size: 17
Level of aggregation: Websites
Period of material under study: 2008 to 2014


Sample size: 385 118
Level of aggregation: Files
Period of material under study: 2008 to 2014