Wang and McClung (2011)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Wang and McClung (2011)
Title: Toward a Detailed Understanding of Illegal Digital Downloading Intentions: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach
Author(s): Wang, X., McClung, S. R.
Year: 2011
Citation: Wang, X. & McClung, S. R. 2011. Toward a Detailed Understanding of Illegal Digital Downloading Intentions: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach. New Media and Society, 13, 663-677.
Link(s): Open Access,Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Based on a survey conducted in spring and summer 2009 with 552 college students, theoriginal sample size was 574 but due to missing values some surveys were deleted. Undergraduate students were recruited from various classes in two universities in the USA (309 and 265).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Spring and summer 2009
Funder(s):

Abstract

Because theory-based research can provide a better understanding of the psychological motivations and reasons why college students intend to engage in illegal digital downloading, this project is conducted from the perspectives of the theory of planned behavior, attitude functional theory and the social norms approach. Based on a survey of 552 college students, results revealed that students who believed that illegal downloading would help save money and was convenient and those who did not want to be termed as being afraid of risk were more likely to download illegally, whereas those who had illegality concerns and high moral standards were less likely to download illegally. In addition, perceived social approval for downloading, but not the perceived frequency of others’ downloading behaviors, predicted intentions to download. This study argues that the integration of the three theoretical frameworks provides more meaningful, yet parsimonious guidance for designing antipiracy campaigns.

Main Results of the Study

There are 4 research questions:

  1. What attitude functions will emerge for illegal digital downloading through a P2P application?
  2. Which attitude functions will predict intentions to engage in illegal downloading in the future?
  3. What norms will emerge for illegal downloading through a P2P application?
  4. Which norms will predict intentions to engage in illegal downloading in the future?

In general the research shows that college students who are motivated by utilitarian reasons (e.g. costs and convenience) and those who do not want to be termed as being afraid of risk are more likely to engage in illegal downloading, whereas those who have high moral and ethical standards and those who have illegality concerns are less likely to engage in illegal downloading.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Artists and companies should provide low-cost alternatives for college students to legally acquire music, movies and software or affordable online video streaming with a wide selection is another option.
  • Although the threat of lawsuits and a US$250,000 fine can be effective, it is important to frame the threat or fear in a way that would not arouse ego-defensive reactions from college students, which might lead to a boomerang effect.
  • Messages can appeal to college students’ desire and motivation to be morally adequate individuals.
  • For antipiracy efforts, it is important to educate the opinion groups that college students listen to and make college students aware that their opinion groups do not endorse illegal downloading behaviors, whereas it is less important to instill a norm of how many other students or people engage in illegal downloading



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 552
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2009