Palfrey et al (2009)

From Copyright EVIDENCE
Revision as of 14:21, 15 July 2015 by Jaakko (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Palfrey et al (2009)
Title: Youth, creativity, and copyright in the digital age
Author(s): Palfrey, Gasser, Simun, and Barnes
Year: 2009
Citation: Palfrey, J., Gasser, U., Simun, M., & Barnes, R. F. (2009). Youth, creativity, and copyright in the digital age.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: N =69;

Ages 12–22: middle school, high school, and college students; 52%–48% female-male ratio; 48% white, 19% Asian, 14% black, 10% Hispanic, 9% other; Range of socioeconomic standing: 79% father college graduate, 77% mother college graduate;

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
Funder(s):

Abstract

New digital networked technologies enable users to participate in the consumption, distribution, and creation of content in ways that are revolutionary for both culture and industry. As a result, “Digital Natives”—young people growing up in the digital world with access to the technologies and the skills to use them in sophisticated ways—are now confronting copyright law on a regular basis. This article presents qualitative research conducted with students age 12–22 that explores youth understanding, attitudes, and discourse on the topic of digital creativity and copyright law. Our findings suggest that young people operate in the digital realm overwhelmingly ignorant of the rights, and to a lesser degree the restrictions, established in copyright law. They often engage in unlawful behavior, such as illegal peer-to-peer music downloading, yet they nevertheless demonstrate an interest in the rights and livelihoods of creators. Building upon our findings of the disconnect between technical, legal, and social norms as pertaining to copyright law, we present the initial stages of the development of an educational intervention that posits students as creators: the Creative Rights copyright curriculum. Educating youth about copyright law is important for empowering young people as actors in society, both in terms of their ability to contribute to cultural knowledge with creative practices and to engage with the laws that govern society.

Main Results of the Study

  • Found a lack of knowledge among young people regarding the rights and restrictions inscribed in copyright law. Even when youth are aware of the illegality of their actions in consuming and sharing copyrighted content online, their behavior mostly persists.
  • Youth tend to have a vague knowledge of the illegality of copyright infringement, they have almost no awareness of the rights copyright law affords to users to create with copyrighted content.
  • Fear of getting caught—either through a record company lawsuit or by their parents is one motivation for a few students to avoid engaging in infringing activity, another reason repeatedly arose in our interviews: respect for the creator. This view was more prominent among those students who engaged in creative activities themselves.
  • Apparent sincerity of claims varied, the livelihood and interests of the artists were very much present in youth discourse around downloading—suggesting that consideration for the artists.
  • Respect was limited (and emphasized financial impact in particular), a respect for creators and their livelihoods was pervasive in the young people’s discussion of the ethics of using others’ creative works.
  • Continues by outlining an education program for youth in which above issues are addressed in order to educate youth about copyright.

Suggest that education, rather than litigation, is the best way to bridge these gaps and reforge connections between creative industries and their young consumers


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Suggests education about copyright would be more effective in combating illegal downloading behaviour compared to litigation, at least in term of youth downloading.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets