Sandulli and Martin-Barbero (2007)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Sandulli and Martin-Barbero (2007)
Title: 68 Cents per Song
Author(s): Sandulli, F. D., Martin-Barbero, S.
Year: 2007
Citation: Sandulli, F. D., & Martin-Barbero, S. (2007). 68 Cents per Song A Socio-Economic Survey on the Internet. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 13(1), 63-78.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: This study appears to draw on the same survey data as Sandulli (2007) but reaches a different conclusion on the average price a Spanish P2P user would like to pay for online music. This study states the average P2P user would be willing to pay 0.68 Euros/song whereas Sandulli (2007) states the figure as being 0.46 Euros/song.

An initial sample of 20,573 P2P users was identified and emailed an online survey. After 10 weeks, 4460 individuals completed correctly the survey, for a response rate of 21.51%. The average respondent took 1 min to complete the questionnaire.

The survey asks questions relating to: Gender, Age, Income, Willingness to Pay, Downloading Activity,

Most of the P2P networks users were male (56%), between 18 and 24 years old (74%) and with less than 15,000 euros income (76%). Very few, just the 8.4% declared having bought music at online stores. The average price a Spanish P2P user would like to pay for online music was 0.68 euros/song compared with the normal price of 0.99 euros/song music consumers can find in the online music stores in Spain. This price difference could explain in some part the low number of P2P users that have bought music online.

To illustrate trends in the declining CD market and growing participation in P2P platforms the study also uses secondary data obtained from IFPI, OECD and BigChampagne.

Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2005
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

This article tries to find out how much and why the users of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks may be willing to pay for a digital song at online music stores, when they can also download songs for free via these networks. Based on a sample of more than 4000 Spanish P2P users, the empirical research reveals how a perceived greater value and a more intensive prosecution policy of copyright violations will boost their willingness to pay for online music.

Main Results of the Study

The main results of this study are:

  • Two-thirds of the P2P users surveyed, 69 per cent, said that they would pay for online music, while just 31 per cent revealed that they would never pay for it.
  • The average price a Spanish P2P user would pay for a digital song is 68 cents of a euro (roughly US$0.75), which is 30 per cent lower than the current price of 99 cents of a euro set by most digital music providers in Spain.
  • 41 per cent of the potential payers for online music felt that increased prosecution of illegal downloading is also a good motivation to pay for online music.
  • Very few Spanish P2P users had ethical convictions about downloading music with regard to the impact on artists: this finding was especially evident among female users.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

[[Has intervention-response::The authors explicitly state a number of p[policy implications:

  • "In order to reduce P2P piracy, firms have to offer the music consumer more value in terms of a larger variety, safer and more reliable downloads, and better download and file management software."
  • "More aggressive and effective legal fight against copyright violation in Spain will probably result in an increased desire to pay, especially among younger P2P users. The likely effectiveness of harsher laws is also supported by our research; we found that on average P2P users who are more afraid of legal prosecution tend to download fewer songs."
  • The survey confirmed that very few Spanish P2P users had ethical convictions about downloading music with regard to the impact on artists...more effective publicity campaigns (institutional and commercial) are needed to inculcate more P2P users with ‘downloading ethics’."]]

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Green-tick.png
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 4430
Level of aggregation: P2P users
Period of material under study: 2005