Wolfe, Higgins and Marcum (2008)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Wolfe, Higgins and Marcum (2008)
Title: Deterrence and Digital Piracy - A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Viruses
Author(s): Wolfe, S. E., Higgins, G. E., Marcum, C. D.
Year: 2008
Citation: Wolfe, S. E., Higgins, G. E. and Marcum, C. D. 2008. Deterrence and Digital Piracy - A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Viruses. Social Science Computer Review, 26, 317-333.
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Approximately 400 self-report questionnaire administered to college students at several

universities in the southeastern United States. The median age of the sample was 21 years with 39.9% of the sample male (n = 143) and 59.2% female (n = 212); 28.2% of respondents were non-White (n = 101), and the remaining 66.2% were White (n = 237).

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?:
Government or policy study?:
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2006 fall
Funder(s):

Abstract

Digital piracy has been shown to be an emerging societal problem. However, research has demonstrated limited techniques that effectively combat digital piracy. The purpose of the present study is to examine the utility of computer viruses in deterring digital piracy. The findings from responses to a survey of college students revealed that fear of computer viruses may influence respondents' intentions to engage in digital piracy. The policy implications of this finding are discussed.

Main Results of the Study

  • When comparing guilt to low self-control and to prior music piracy, guilt has the strongest association in the entire model. This suggests that individuals who do not see viruses as a deterrent see guilt as a deterrent.
  • correlations show that the more moral beliefs increased the less likely it was for an individual to see viruses as a deterrent to committing music piracy
  • Individuals with lower levels of self-control are likely to engage or intend to engage in criminal and deviant behavior
  • None of the demographic measures (i.e., sex, age, major, race, or income) were shown to have any statistically significant associations with music piracy.
  • Self-control and previous music piracy were shown to have positive associations with an individual’s likelihood of seeing computer viruses as a potential consequence of engaging in music piracy
  • As an individual’s level of guilt increased, the likelihood of him or her listing viruses as a consequence decreases
  • The perception of downloading a virus may be considered a deterrent for digital piracy


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Policy makers can use guilt to reduce instances of digital piracy. This may be

accomplished by placing statements in downloading procedures that incite guilt.

  • The ethical use of viruses may be important in reducing instances of digital piracy.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 400
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study:


Sample size: 400
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study:


Sample size: 400
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: fall 2006