Chiang and Assane (2008)

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Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Chiang and Assane (2008)
Title: Music piracy among students on the university campus: Do males and females react differently?
Author(s): Chiang, E. P., Assane, D.
Year: 2008
Citation: Chiang, E. P., & Assane, D. (2008). Music piracy among students on the university campus: Do males and females react differently?. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(4), 1371-1380.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: 456 questionaires of university students from three different universities.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2003 - 2004
Funder(s):
  • None

Abstract

This paper analyzes the role that gender plays on the likelihood and extent of peer-to-peer music file-sharing, a key issue in the debate on copyright protection. We use an extensive data set on university students, a core demographic in the use of file-sharing technologies. The empirical results suggest that male and female students respond differently to risk and economic incentives. Specifically, females tend to react more consistently with expected risk and economic deterrent factors, while males exhibit more sporadic behavior.

Main Results of the Study

This article argues that:

  • Gender differences abound not only in the criminology literature, but also in technology usage and labor market opportunities.
  • Male students are likely to use file-sharing technologies more frequently and to a greater extent than female students, and to have a higher percentage of their total music collection consisting of music acquired via file-sharing than female students.
  • Females, on average, possess greater risk perceptions and more willingness-to-pay to avoid “illegal” actions compared with males, while male students exhibit more sporadic behavior.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

- The music industry should continue its usage of enforcement actions.

- The music industry should increase its support in the expansion of fee-based music subscriptions and download services by helping firms and artists resolve issues that inhibit their growth.

- The music industry should take a more active role in technological protection (i.e., Digital Rights Management) that increases the cost of music file-sharing.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 456
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2003-2004