Chiou, Cheng and Huang (2011)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Chiou, Cheng and Huang (2011)
Title: The effects of artist adoration and perceived risk of getting caught on attitude and intention to pirate music in the United States and Taiwan
Author(s): Chiou, J.-S., Cheng, H.-I., Huang, C.-Y.
Year: 2011
Citation: Chiou, J. S., Cheng, H. I., & Huang, C. Y. (2011). The effects of artist adoration and perceived risk of getting caught on attitude and intention to pirate music in the United States and Taiwan. Ethics & Behavior, 21(3), 182-196.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Djekic and Loebbecke (2005)
About the Data
Data Description: Two hundred nineteen undergraduate and graduate students from four universities in the northern part of Taiwan and 252 undergraduate and graduate students from a large university in the eastern United States participated in the study. Because Taiwanese universities are smaller in size and have less social background heterogeneity than their U.S. counterpart universities, 4 universities, instead of 1, were included in the sampling frames. In both societies, international students from other countries were excluded from the samples.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2011
Funder(s):
  • None Stated

Abstract

Piracy is the greatest threat facing the global music industry today. This study explores the effects of artist adoration and the perceived risk of being caught on the attitude and intention to engage in pirating a digital song among college students. The moderating effect of cultural environment factor is also examined. Experiments using between-group factorial designs were conducted in the United States and Taiwan. The results show that perceived risk of getting caught and cultural environment are important factors that can significantly affect the attitude and intention toward downloading unauthorized music. In addition, a two-way (Perceived Risk × Culture) and a three-way interaction in the model are also observed.

Main Results of the Study

  • This study found that the perceived risk of getting caught is one of the important factors that can significantly reduce the attitude and intention toward download unauthorized music in both the United States and Taiwan. Although Taiwanese students have a more tolerant attitude and intention to download unauthorized music than their U.S. counterparts in general, their approval of piracy and intention to engage in it will be significantly reduced if the risk of being caught is higher. This finding can provide strong insight into how to curb this form of music piracy throughout the world.
  • The results also demonstrate that the cultural environment does have an effect on the attitude and intention toward music piracy. Using the United States and Taiwan as the examples, this study showed that the norm of reciprocity in a collectivist culture is a motivator for music file sharing. In addition, the legal environment also exerts a role in music piracy behavior. Compared to the United States, Taiwan has less stringent Internet copyright enforcement. The low rate of being caught leaves consumers with no excuse not to share music with in-group members.
  • Compared to Taiwanese students, U.S. students are not sensitive to the difference between the effect of low and medium perceived risk of getting caught on their attitude toward downloading music illegally.
  • The effect of adoration of a specific artist on curbing individuals’ approval of downloading unauthorized music is mixed in the research results. Students in the United States have a less favorable attitude toward downloading unauthorized music of their favorite artists in the condition of low perceived risk of getting caught as opposed to other perceived risk situations.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • If the probability of negative consequences is viewed as severe, then students in both the United States and Taiwan are less likely to download music illegally. By raising awareness through media coverage on illegal downloading, the music industry has a better chance to curb music piracy online.
  • The low rate of being caught leaves consumers with no excuse not to share music with in-group members in Taiwan.Law enforcement agencies should not only stress the risk of getting caught to consumers but also emphasize that the norm of reciprocity does not validate the practice of unauthorized digital music downloading, especially in a collectivist country.
  • Marketers in the United States should place more stress on the notion that illegally downloading music financially hurts the adored artist’s contract with the recording company.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 219
Level of aggregation: Taiwanese Students
Period of material under study: 2011


Sample size: 252
Level of aggregation: USA Students
Period of material under study: 2011