Limayem, Khalifa and Chin (2004)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Limayem, Khalifa and Chin (2004)
Title: Factors Motivating Software Piracy: A Longitudinal Study
Author(s): Limayem, M., Khalifa, M., Chin, W. W.
Year: 2004
Citation: Limayem, M., Khalifa, M. and Chin, W. W. 2004. Factors Motivating Software Piracy: A Longitudinal Study. Ieee Transactions on Engineering Management, 51, 414-425.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Higgins (2007), Konstantakis, Palaigeorgiou, Siozos and Tsoukalas (2010), Phau and Liang (2012)
About the Data
Data Description: 2 separate surveys, 4 months apart, to the same 127 students doing a Bachelor of Business in a Canadian University. The response rate was slightly over 77% with 98 returned questionnaires.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding of factors influencing software piracy. A model explaining the contribution of different factors to software piracy intention and its subsequent effect on actual software piracy is constructed based on established theories of human behavior. The model is then tested empirically in a longitudinal study with a survey. Findings show that social factors and beliefs concerning consequences of software piracy have significant effects on software piracy intentions. The data also show that while habits and facilitating conditions were significantly related to actual piracy behavior, intentions did not necessarily lead to the actual act of software piracy. The implications of the findings to research and practice are discussed.

Main Results of the Study

The paper explores 7 hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between...

  1. Social factors and intentions to pirate software.
  2. Perceived consequences and intentions to pirate software.
  3. Habit and software piracy behavior.
  4. Habit and affect for the intentions to pirate software.
  5. Individuals’ affect toward software piracy and their intentions to pirate software.
  6. Facilitating conditions and software piracy behavior.
  7. An individual’s intention to pirate software and the actual act of piracy.

Results:

  1. Social factors were found to significantly influence intentions to pirate software.
  2. Beliefs of consequences of software piracy were found to significantly influence intentions.
  3. Habits were also found to affect actual behavior and reinforce attitudes.
  4. Hypothesis number 5 was found to be insignificant.
  5. Facilitating conditions (i.e., inappropriate anti-piracy measures, availability of help to pirate, and access to software that can be pirated) were found to significantly affect the actual software piracy behavior.
  6. Intentions did not lead to the actual act of pirating software.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • The code of ethics or anti-piracy policy should be developed and widely circulated. Advertisements, brochures, and promotions about anti-piracy also help to create such an environment. Anti-piracy policies should specify that copying software from a friend or a family member is illegal



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 98
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: Not stated