Morris and Higgins (2009)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Morris and Higgins (2009)
Title: Neutralizing Potential and Self-Reported Digital Piracy: A Multitheoretical Exploration Among College Undergraduates
Author(s): Morris, R. G., Higgins, G. E.
Year: 2009
Citation: Morris, R. G. and Higgins, G. E. 2009. Neutralizing Potential and Self-Reported Digital Piracy: A Multitheoretical Exploration Among College Undergraduates. Criminal Justice Review, 34, 173-195.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Higgins, Marcum, Freiburger and Ricketts (2012), Morris and Higgins (2010), Siponen, Vance and Willison (2012)
About the Data
Data Description: Fall 2006 semester, from two medium sized universities in Eastern and Southern United States. In all, 585 students completed questionnaires.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2006
Funder(s):

Abstract

This study explores retrospective (self-reported) and prospective (willingness to engage) participation in digital piracy via a multitheoretical approach relying on self-control, social learning, microanomie, and techniques of neutralization. Using more complete measures of digital piracy than in previous studies (illegal music, software, and movie downloading), data were collected from undergraduate students from multiple universities (n = 585). Modest support was found for neutralization theory when controlling for other theoretical variables. Modest support was also established for social learning theory. It is clear that there is an underexplored cross-theoretical dynamic in explaining self-reported piracy and willingness to engage in digital piracy. Suggestions for policy and future research are presented and limitations are accounted for.

Main Results of the Study

The study tests 4 hypothesis:

  1. It is expected that influence from denial of responsibility, injury, victim, condemnation of condemners, appeal to higher loyalties, and the defense of necessity will be directly and positively related to both willingness to participate in and self-reported digital piracy—illegal software, music, and movie downloading.
  2. In the present study, it is expected that low level of self-control will have a direct and positive effect on both self-reported and willingness to participate in digital piracy.
  3. We expect that social learning theory will have direct and positive effect on both self-reported and willingness to engage in digital piracy behaviors.
  4. Individuals who have stronger levels of self-enhancing values (microanomie)should be more likely to report past participation and report potential future participation in digital piracy.

Results:

  1. The neutralization construct was found to have a statistically significant direct effect on willingness (prospective) to engage in illegally downloading a music CD but not on potential video piracy.
  2. Differential association was also significant and influenced the odds of greater willingness by a factor of 24.7% with Self-reported music piracy, but not video or software.
  3. Willingness to engage in video piracy was influenced by microanomie and low self-control, as well as by each form of retrospective piracy and willingness to engage in music piracy.
  4. None of the sociodemographic control variables in the willingness models were found to be significant in predicting the outcome variables.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Implications:

  • Administrators should also focus on educating students on the potential ramifications of being charged with digital piracy, both civilly and criminally
  • Overall, curricula can be developed and properly used to provide valid information for college students.
  • University administrators may also want to consider cooperating with online digital media providers to provide legitimate access to students while enrolled at the institution



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 585
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2006