Nhan Bowen and Bartula (2019)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Nhan Bowen and Bartula (2019)
Title: A comparison of a public and private university of the effects of low-cost streaming services and income on movie piracy
Author(s): Nhan, J., Bowen, K., Bartula, A.
Year: 2019
Citation: Nhan, J., Bowen, K. And Bartula, A. (2019) A comparison of a public and private university of the effects of low-cost streaming services and income on movie piracy. Technology in Society. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101213
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Data were obtained from a survey of 395 students (total) from a North Texas public university and private university. Surveys were offered over an extended time frame (two years) to allow for accurate comparisons, which also correlated with an increase in the popularity of streaming services. Likert scale questions were used to determine the respondents’ frequency of illegal/legal streaming as well as demographic information. In particular, the survey sought to discern the financial security of the respondents (e.g. household income).
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • July 2016 - January 2018
Funder(s):

Abstract

“This paper examines factors that affect online movie piracy activity. Specifically, the authors examine the impact of inexpensive legal streaming services, such as Netflix, and household family income as well as gender. A sample of college students at a private university, representing a more affluent population, are compared with students from a public institution. Initial findings indicate differences between the two samples. Lastly, although digital piracy is reduced among the samples, it does still exist suggesting a much more complex issue than previously thought.”

Main Results of the Study

Most students report streaming services being their primary means of digital consumption, with a preference for Netflix (94% of private school students and 85% of public).

The most popular form of piracy amongst students was streaming movies (48% from private university and 28% of public university), with downloading and P2P file-sharing less common.

Students reported the increase in low-cost streaming services as having impacted their piracy activity, with over half of respondents indicating they’d stopped piracy due to access to these services.

There are some indications of differences in piracy between genders, with more men engaging in piracy than women, particularly for downloading and P2P sources.

Surprisingly, the study finds that the need to pirate does not decrease as income levels rise; private university students in fact pirate more than public. As such, the study concludes that motivations for piracy are not purely price sensitive or rational.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Whilst the study does not offer any explicit policy suggestions, the author concludes that piracy may be a “much more complex issue than previously thought”, with enforcement measures and low-cost streaming services failing to completely eliminate piracy.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 395
Level of aggregation: Students
Period of material under study: July 2016 - January 2018