North and Oishi (2006)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

North and Oishi (2006)
Title: Music CD Purchase Decisions
Author(s): North, A. C., Oishi, A.
Year: 2006
Citation: North, A. C., & Oishi, A. (2006). Music CD purchase decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(12), 3043-3084.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: Study 1: 211 British (gender balance approx equal) and 100 Japanese (60 male, 40 female) undergraduate students, 18 to 24 years old.

Study 2: 191 British undergraduates (74 male, 116 female, 1 n/s), of mean age approx 20 years. None had participated in Study 1.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):

Abstract

The increasing ease and frequency of digital music piracy and the global nature of the music industry make it important to understand why consumers in different national markets purchase music CDs. Study 1 identified 5 factors underlying CD purchasing, noting these differences between British and Japanese participants. Study 2 investigated relationships between these 5 factors and individual-difference variables. Compliance was unrelated to scores on the Friendship factor. Experience seeking and scores on the Re-Experience the Music factor were correlated negatively. Scores on the Friendship factor and innovativeness were unrelated, although innovativeness and scores on the Need to Control and Be Involved With Music factor were positively associated with product, purchase decision, and consumption involvements. Implications for marketing and future research are discussed.

Main Results of the Study

Factor analysis of reasons for purchasing CDs among two separately studied samples identified two sets of five underlying factors that were very similar to one another:

  • Friendship
  • Need to control and be involved with music
  • Music industry
  • Need to re-experience the music
  • Interaction with (particularly visual) media (Study 1); Superficial engagement with music / artist (Study 2).

These findings almost certainly apply to the two major CD-purchasing age groups: 15- to 19-year-olds and 20- to 29-year-olds.

The five factors have immediate marketing implications, and may provide guidance for future research that attempts to explain why consumers should continue to purchase CDs in the digital age.

However, a limited number of differences between British and Japanese participants are identified concerning the importance of these factors in individuals’ purchasing decisions for CDs. There might therefore be limitations on the extent to which the marketing implications in this cross-cultural study can be applied outside the British market, before further research.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The research suggests that reasons for purchasing CDs vary between different national markets such that marketing and anti-piracy campaigns should be tailored for these different markets.

Word-of-mouth advertising may be an extremely useful means of marketing CDs, as evidenced by the scores for the Friendship factor.

The relative rarity / scarcity of particular music on CD might be important to some people, who might be particularly prone to obtaining illegal copies of CDs from friends or the Internet, particularly if the music is difficult to acquire legally. However, they might be attracted to legally produced special editions of CDs and / or those having unusual aspects of the music or high-quality packaging.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 311
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 191
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: Not stated