Poole (2010)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Poole (2010)
Title: The Cost of Digitising Europe’s Cultural Heritage A Report for the Comité des Sages of the European Commission
Author(s): Poole, N
Year: 2010
Citation: Poole, N. (2010). The Cost of Digitising Europe’s Cultural Heritage A Report for the Comité des Sages of the European Commission.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The survey regarded 45 National Libraries in the Council of Europe, 17673 museums in the EU, 25 National archives in the European Union, 10.81 million hours of audio in EU cultural institutions, and 12.14 million hours of video in EU cultural institutions.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: Yes
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • Not stated
Funder(s):

Abstract

The purpose of this study has been to conduct a thorough investigation of the costs associated with digitising different types of material in different types of cultural heritage institution. The objective has been to arrive at a set of reasonable projected costs for the Digitisation of Europe’s cultural heritage. It should be recognised from the outset that there can be no single definitive answer to this question. Digitisation is a process, and as with any process the actual cost depends both on the organisational context, the complexity of the material and the sophistication of the output

Main Results of the Study

  • The estimated total cost of digitising the collections of Europe’s museums, archives and libraries, including the audiovisual material they hold is approximately €100bn, or €10bn per annum for the next 10 years, factoring in a cumulative efficiency gain of 0.5% per annum.
  • The cost of preserving and providing access to this material over a 10-year period after Digitisation would be in the order of €10bn to €25bn, provided that centralised repository infrastructure is made available for the purpose.
  • The Research & Development Budget for the Joint Strike Fighter programme is estimated at €40.34bn.
  • It would cost between 10% and 40% of the Joint Strike Fighter R&D budget to digitise every eligible title in Europe’s libraries.
  • The cost of delivering one Joint Strike Fighter is €147.41m, equivalent to the cost of digitising 1.93m books, or 2-3% of all individual titles held in libraries.
  • The cost of delivering 100km of main road in Europe is €750m. 100km of main road is equivalent to the cost of digitising every piece of audio content in EU cultural institutions, or 48% of the total holdings of video (excluding film). 100km of main road would pay for the digitisation of up to 16% of all available books in EU libraries, or 40% of the historic photographs in EU cultural institutions.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Mass-Digitisation is an industrial process, and hence is very susceptible to efficiency gains at scale. Broadly, the larger a Digitisation project becomes, the lower the unit cost of Digitisation due to the dispersal of overhead and upfront capital costs over a larger body of material.
  • Digitisation naturally tends towards greater efficiency over time. Hence the work-rate of a Digitisation facility at the start of a 10-year project is significantly lower than towards the end. This is not only due to the increased technical competence of the people involved, but also the gradual refinement and streamlining of workflow over the period of the project. This effect has been noted even in 3-year projects, with a significant majority of the Digitisation completed during the project lifetime being completed in the 3rd year.
  • Due to natural market forces and the increasing presence of low-cost, high-volume Digitisation services in India and the Far East, the unit cost of Digitisation provided by 3rd party services has decreased significantly over the past 10 years.
  • The Return on Investment in large-scale Digitisation tends to be higher where there is ongoing strategic investment in Digitisation as a core activity of the cultural institution, rather than as a project-funded activity. This is due to the significant efficiency gain that arises from long-term practice and the development of tacit institutional knowledge and expertise leading to more effective prioritisation and decision-making.
  • As with physical collections, the acquisition of digital material creates a long-term obligation on the host institution, which must be accounted for. Most estimates put the cost of preserving and providing access to a digital asset for a period of 10 years at 50-100% of the initial costs of creating it. Hence, mass-Digitisation creates a large-scale economic obligation which must be addressed from the outset in programme budgets.
  • When considering mass-Digitisation and text-conversion/encoding of books, it is important to factor into the value equation not only the potential value of the assets themselves, but also the considerable value of the new knowledge and information associated with them (such as the new insight into language development gained by Google as a result of the Google Book Search project).



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Green-tick.png
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 45
Level of aggregation: National library
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 17673
Level of aggregation: Museum
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 25
Level of aggregation: National archive
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 10810000
Level of aggregation: Hour of audio
Period of material under study: Not stated


Sample size: 12140000
Level of aggregation: Hour of video
Period of material under study: Not stated