Difference between revisions of "Hunt, Williams, Nicholas and Rowlands (2009)"

From Copyright EVIDENCE
Line 34: Line 34:
 
|EvidenceBasedPolicy=F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness),
 
|EvidenceBasedPolicy=F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness),
 
|Discipline=O34: Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
 
|Discipline=O34: Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
|Intervention-Response="The Digital is Different. It is changing very basic assumptions about the idea of ownership, sharing, and copying content. New business models are needed, and serious questions are raised about the quality and breadth of content material that will be created without new thinking."
+
|Intervention-Response=*"The Digital is Different. It is changing very basic assumptions about the idea of ownership, sharing, and copying content. New business models are needed, and serious questions are raised about the quality and breadth of content material that will be created without new thinking."
 
+
*"Expectations have been established for the consumer that include fast access to free information, the ability to copy and share such data, and the ability to consume this on a variety of platforms and devices."
"...even if unauthorised downloading behaviour is changed in this country it is not yet clear that this is possible on a global scale."
+
*"There is a triangle of digital responsibility: between those that create and distribute content, those that consume, share and copy it, and those who manufacture the products that enable these exchanges. To date research and legal action has focused on the consumer – but not on the responsibilities of industry. Ethical reciprocity is not yet clearly defined."
 
+
*"The Consumer Electronics industry is copyright-dependent, yet is predicated increasingly on technologies that allow the infringement of these copyrights. Hardware and software applications will only become more efficient at these and many other communication processes."
"Expectations have been established for the consumer that include fast access to free information, the ability to copy and share such data, and the ability to consume this on a variety of platforms and devices."
+
*"Web access, like the products of the computer and software businesses, is also going to get better. As it does so more consumers will have the ability to download vast amounts of material, legally or not. Digital literacy education for all ages must include simple information on the complexities of downloading culture. Downloading and sharing per se is not wrong."
 
+
*"The Internet is built on a paradox of privacy. Surveillance is easy and, as well as posting and sharing their own and others’ content, consumers are revealing their interests to third-parties such as advertisers all the time simply by being online. ISPs are the part of the Internet Triangle that knows what consumers do online, yet they – for obvious and understandable reasons – do not want to become the Internet"
"There is a triangle of digital responsibility: between those that create and distribute content, those that consume, share and copy it, and those who manufacture the products that enable these exchanges. To date research and legal action has focused on the consumer – but not on the responsibilities of industry. Ethical reciprocity is not yet clearly defined."
 
 
 
"The Consumer Electronics industry is copyright-dependent, yet is predicated increasingly on technologies that allow the infringement of these copyrights. Hardware and software applications will only become more efficient at these and many other communication processes."
 
 
 
"Web access, like the products of the computer and software businesses, is also going to get better. As it does so more consumers will have the ability to download vast amounts of material, legally or not. Digital literacy education for all ages must include simple information on the complexities of downloading culture. Downloading and sharing per se is not wrong."
 
 
 
"The Internet is built on a paradox of privacy. Surveillance is easy and, as well as posting and sharing their own and others’ content, consumers are revealing their interests to third-parties such as advertisers all the time simply by being online. ISPs are the part of the Internet Triangle that knows what consumers do online, yet they – for obvious and understandable reasons – do not want to become the Internet"
 
Police.
 
 
|Description of Data=The research was conducted by means of:
 
|Description of Data=The research was conducted by means of:
  

Revision as of 10:38, 17 October 2016

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Hunt, Williams, Nicholas and Rowlands (2009)
Title: Copycats? Digital Consumers in the Online Age
Author(s): Hunt, R., Williams, P., Rowlands, I., Nicholas. D.
Year: 2009
Citation: Hunt, R., Williams, P., Nicholas, D., & Rowlands, I. (2009). Copycats? Digital consumers in the online age.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Hargreaves (2011)
About the Data
Data Description: The research was conducted by means of:
  • A comprehensive and systematic review of the internationally published research literature, which filtered and rated research by its validity and robustness;
  • Selected interviews with major stakeholders, regulatory bodies and industry experts;
  • An in-depth media analysis which provided the essential currency and identified future trends;
  • An empirical exploration of the phenomenon of online downloading, sharing and the re-using of content: we went online and found out just how easy it is to file-share on the Internet – in a multitude of ways.

More than four hundred reports and papers were identified and evaluated from the thousands published for the quality of their data – full bibliographic references may be found at the end of this report.

In addition, eight people were interviewed, and media analysis took place over the period January to April 2009.

Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: Yes
Government or policy study?: Yes
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2009
Funder(s):
  • SABIP

Abstract

The CIBER report "Copycats? Digital Consumers in the Online Age evaluates digital consumer behaviour and attitudes and their implications for intellectual property policy, "commissioned by the Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy (SABIP), aims to provide a robust evidence base to help guide policy makers in this strategic area.

The report has two further objectives:

  • To inform a SABIP workshop at which a selected group of attendees with a direct interest in the issue will consider the implications of consumer behaviour on IP and make recommendations for further areas of SABIP research;
  • To highlight any further SABIP research that is required to ensure that all agencies of Government have the fullest understanding of the issues.

Main Results of the Study

The study addressed a number of propositions relating to consumer behaviour and attitudes and their implications for IP policy:

  • The study found strong but not conclusive evidence that the problem of infringing activity is "huge and growing". Accurately measuring the extent of the problem remains challenging due to data deficiencies.
  • Very strong evidence of myriad choices when consuming content and consumers are confused about what is legal and not legal.
  • Very strong evidence that consumer attitudes and behaviours towards property in the online and physical worlds are very different.
  • Very strong evidence that "it has never been easier to break the law."
  • The evidence relating to whether there are fewer cues guiding behaviour in the online world is inconclusive and contradictory.
  • There is strong empirical evidence (with some contradictory exceptions) that, "education isn’t working, yet" with regards to informing consumers about unauthorised downloading.
  • There is strong empirical evidence (with some contradictory findings) of a pervasive idea that there is "‘no victim’, and so ‘no crime"

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • "The Digital is Different. It is changing very basic assumptions about the idea of ownership, sharing, and copying content. New business models are needed, and serious questions are raised about the quality and breadth of content material that will be created without new thinking."
  • "Expectations have been established for the consumer that include fast access to free information, the ability to copy and share such data, and the ability to consume this on a variety of platforms and devices."
  • "There is a triangle of digital responsibility: between those that create and distribute content, those that consume, share and copy it, and those who manufacture the products that enable these exchanges. To date research and legal action has focused on the consumer – but not on the responsibilities of industry. Ethical reciprocity is not yet clearly defined."
  • "The Consumer Electronics industry is copyright-dependent, yet is predicated increasingly on technologies that allow the infringement of these copyrights. Hardware and software applications will only become more efficient at these and many other communication processes."
  • "Web access, like the products of the computer and software businesses, is also going to get better. As it does so more consumers will have the ability to download vast amounts of material, legally or not. Digital literacy education for all ages must include simple information on the complexities of downloading culture. Downloading and sharing per se is not wrong."
  • "The Internet is built on a paradox of privacy. Surveillance is easy and, as well as posting and sharing their own and others’ content, consumers are revealing their interests to third-parties such as advertisers all the time simply by being online. ISPs are the part of the Internet Triangle that knows what consumers do online, yet they – for obvious and understandable reasons – do not want to become the Internet"



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 8
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2009


Sample size: 400
Level of aggregation: Texts
Period of material under study: 2009