|Title:||Grand rights and opera reuse today|
|Citation:||Cuntz, A. (2020) Grand rights and opera reuse today. WIPO Economic Research Working Paper No.62|
|Link(s):||Definitive , Open Access|
|Key Related Studies:|
|About the Data|
|Data Description:||Data were obtained from operabase.com, constituting details of 142,000 opera performances. The study focusses on a subset of works whose copyright status changes over the observation periods.|
|Data Type:||Primary and Secondary data|
|Secondary Data Sources:|
|Data Collection Methods:|
|Data Analysis Methods:|
|Cross Country Study?:||No|
|Government or policy study?:||No|
|Time Period(s) of Collection:||
“This article studies the economic role of grand rights in the incentives to stage and reuse works from the opera canon. It complements previous research on the incentives to create new opera (Giorcelli and Moser, 2020) in the way it looks at copyright taxing availability and follow-on creativity around works. Based on a unique dataset of global opera performances, we find that changes in copyright status increase the number of total performances individual works receive on stage once copyright expires. Moreover, we provide preliminary evidence on chilling, long-term effects of status around premiering operas and revivals at the beginning of the copyright term. Based on these findings, we discuss limitations of the study and novel options for copyright policy frameworks.”
Main Results of the Study
• Works under copyright are performed less frequently than works out of copyright (by approx. 10 – 15%). Even historical copyright status limits the diffusion of works across time. The study attributes this to the need for an opera house to secure the licensing rights to in copyright performance, making public domain works more attractive.
• In combination, these two factors limit the premiering of reused materials in new stage productions, which may reduce the diversity of content available at opera.
Policy Implications as Stated By Author
The study recommends that copyright should be aligned to account for incentives to create, and reconsider the effect of long copyright terms on reuse activities, particularly where this results in high transaction costs, and a lack of diversity in performances.
Coverage of Study
|Level of aggregation:||Performances|
|Period of material under study:||2012 – 2013, 2017 – 2018|