De Souza-Leão et al. (2019)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

de Souza-Leão et al. (2019)
Title: Fans Make Art: Authoring and Creativity in the Production of Fanvideos
Author(s): de Souza-Leão, A.L.M., Moura, B.M., de Santana, I.R.C., Nunes, W.K.S., Henrique, V.M.R.
Year: 2019
Citation: de Souza-Leão, A.L.M., Moura, B.M., de Santana, I.R.C., Nunes, W.K.S. and Henrique, V.M.R. (2019) Fans Make Art: Authoring and Creativity in the Production of Fanvideos. Studies on Emerging Countries, 4(24) pp 22-36
Link(s): Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: The study examines videos based on popular cultural franchises, being Game of Thrones, Harry Potter and Star Wars. Using text searches on YouTube to limit the search to only fanmade, non-monetary, Brazilian videos, the study analyses a total of 257 fan productions. These videos were then coded according to themes derived from interpretive content analysis, being: production format, production form, techniques of narrative, genres, references to franchises, thematic compatibility with fictional universe and approach of the franchises.
Data Type: Primary and Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • April 2006 - February 2018
Funder(s):
  • National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)

Abstract

“The research aims to analyze how Brazilian produce fanvideos based on successful pop culture franchises.For such, assumes that fans are prosumers of pop culture in a context of participatory culture and that fanvideos are user-generated content propitiated by Web 2.0 technologies. A total of 257 fanvideos posted between April 2006 and February 2018 were analyzed through Interpretive Content Analysis. Five types of fanmade productions were identified: fandub, fanart, fan animation, fan music and fanfiction. Such production demonstrates that fanvideos reveal the fans' desire to make art, what occurs both as a way for the fans relate to the franchises they admire, as well as to express them-selves based on them.By doing this, they wide the scope and the narrative possibilities of the franchises through intra-and inter-textualities in relation to the universe of pop culture and their own daily experiences.The research presents an original approach to user-generated content in association to fan production and the notion of prosumption. As limitation, the study is delimited to the Brazilian production of fanvideos. Future similar research could be carried out in other countries, as well as regarding other fan productions.”

Main Results of the Study

The study finds that fans have a productive role in participating in the development of popular cultural franchises. Most of the content analysed concerns the retelling, re-interpreting and creating of new stories to the saga, a role that is described as “authoring”.

The study notes some differences between franchises in terms of the content and meaning added to the franchise by fans. Star Wars has major contributions, including the creation of new stories in the universe. Game of Thrones by contrast has more minor contributions, such as representations (e.g. cosplay) and reinterpretations (e.g. situating the characters in a modern context). The authors suggest this is due to the relatively new nature of Game of Thrones, whose fan base may be less developed and diversified than Star Wars.

Concluding, the study suggests that the cultural impact of a franchise, the time of its existence and the diversity of its fan base may influence how fans appropriate elements into their own productions.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

The study does not offer any explicit policy recommendations.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
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Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 257
Level of aggregation: Videos
Period of material under study: April 2006 - February 2018