Handke (2012a)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Handke (2012)
Title: A Taxonomy of Empirical Research on Copyright - How Do We Inform Policy?
Author(s): Handke, C.
Year: 2012
Citation: Handke, C. (2012). A Taxonomy of Empirical Research on Copyright-How Do We Inform Policy?. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 9(1), pp.47-92.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
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About the Data
Data Description: This study is a literature review and has no original data.
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Secondary Data Sources:
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Data Analysis Methods:
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Cross Country Study?: Yes
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: Yes
Government or policy study?: No
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Abstract

This paper summarizes key results in the empirical literature on unauthorized copying and copyright, and puts them into context. Casting the net more widely than previous surveys, it highlights noteworthy gaps and contradictions in the literature. There is initial evidence, for example, that the economic effects of digital copying vary between different industries, but these differences are not yet well understood. Most importantly, the empirical literature is unbalanced. The bulk of econometric research has focused on unauthorized copying and rights holder revenues. Little is known about the implications for user welfare, for the supply of copyright works, or about the costs of running a copyright system — and the preliminary evidence is often quite surprising. Much work on these issues remains to arrive at reasonable implications for copyright policy.

Main Results of the Study

This paper advances a relatively elaborate taxonomy of empirical studies on the economic consequences of unauthorized copying and copyright. The classification and overview presented here yields an important insight: the empirical literature is unbalanced. The bulk of econometric research has focused on rights holders, and in particular on the extent to which unauthorized copying harms rights holders. In order to inform copyright policy, it will also be necessary to make progress on several other topics. Little is known about the implications in real markets for user welfare, for the supply of copyright works, or about the costs of running a copyright system.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

Many studies on unauthorized copying and rights holder revenues find a significant negative effect, at least over the relatively short periods of time covered in most assessments. If this stands, other steps have to follow in order to inform copyright policy. It is still unclear how user welfare is affected, and what the more protracted effects are, for instance on the supply of copyright works. The sparse evidence so far raises doubts whether any losses to rights holders translate into a loss in social welfare under current market conditions. For example, there is hardly any evidence that copyright strength would be positively related to the quantity or quality of copyright works supplied. Particularly in this area, much work remains to arrive at reasonable implications for copyright policy.

Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Green-tick.png
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Green-tick.png
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Green-tick.png
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Green-tick.png
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets