Hazucha, Liu and Watabe (2013)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Hazucha, Liu and Watabe (2013)
Title: Copyright, Technological Protection Measures and Their Acceptance by Consumers in Japan
Author(s): Hazucha, B., Liu, H., Watabe, T.
Year: 2013
Citation: Hazucha, B., Liu, H. and Watabe, T, Copyright, Technological Protection Measures and Their Acceptance by Consumers in Japan, SERCI Annual Congress Conference Paper (2013).
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: Data was collected by using an online service through MyVoice Communications, Inc. for making public opinion polls. Researchers collected 1,252 fully or partially responded questionnaires between October 3-8, 2012. The survey targeted respondents ages 15-59 in Japan, with 49.35% female and 50.65% male.

Questionnaires were composed of multiple-choice questions, which were combined in some cases with open response options. Questions examined: (1) restrictions on use; (2) consumption habits; and (3) knowledge and recognition of copyright law.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • October 3-8, 2012
Funder(s):
  • Not stated

Abstract

In the early days of digital reproduction and internet communication technologies, technological protection measures were deemed to prevent potential copying of copyrighted works by the users of such technologies. However, the most of technological protection measures used so far were quickly circumvented after their introduction. This led to the development and use of more and more advanced technological protection measures, which were also quickly circumvented after their introduction. Therefore, the conventional view on the efficiency of using technological protection measures is that their use leads to a vicious circle of their circumvention and upgrading.

To examine the efficiency of technological protection measures, we conducted an online survey in Japan. A random sample of 1,252 internet users was asked to respond to a series of multiple-choice questions on their consumption of copyrighted works and their acceptance of or objection to selected restrictions on various uses of copyrighted works. By analyzing collected data, we identified that an individual’s decision on the acceptance or rejection of such technological and other restrictions on using copyrighted works is affected by factors such as gender, type of copyrighted works, perception of justified use, and actual use of copyright works. In addition, we observed considerable differences between the importance of individual types of copyrighted works and their uses for consumers. Some types of copyrighted works and their uses were more important for respondents than others. In many cases, the respondents’ judgments were consistent with the current copyright law and practice in Japan. However, there are several significant issues where their judgment considerably differs, especially with regard to recent changes in Japanese copyright law aiming to strengthen copyright enforcement in the digital environment. This can considerably undermine the efficiency of those changes in copyright law.

Main Results of the Study

  • Results showed that the most problematic restriction in respondents’ opinions was on time-shifting of broadcasted TV programs. Less problematic were the restrictions on sound recording on live popular music concerts. Somewhere in the middle was restriction on copying movie DVDs and Blu-ray Discs.
  • The online survey revealed there are considerable differences between the importance of individual types of copyrighted works and their uses for consumers. Some types of works and uses are more important for consumers than others.
  • If the individual considers the restriction as justified, there is a higher likelihood that she will confirm with such restriction and will not try to circumvent it in any way.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Differences in the importance of individual types of copyrighted works and their uses can explain why similar technological and other protection measures works with some types of copyrighted works and fails with the others.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 1,252
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: Not stated