Siwek (2009)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Siwek (2009)
Title: Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy: The 2003 – 2007 Report
Author(s): Siwek, S. E.
Year: 2009
Citation: Siwek, S. E. (2009). Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy: 2003-2007 Report. Economists Incorporated.
Link(s): Definitive , Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: The data in this study quantify the size and critical importance of the copyright industries to the U.S. economy, using the most current data available. As in past studies, the U.S. copyright industries’ contribution to the U.S. economy is measured by three economic indicators: value-added to the U.S. current dollar gross domestic product (“GDP”); share of national employment; and revenues generated from foreign sales and exports. In addition, this study includes two additional indicators of the importance of the copyright industries to the U.S. economy: compensation per employee and the contribution of the copyright industries to the real annual growth of the U.S. economy.
Data Type: Secondary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2003-2007
Funder(s):
  • International Intellectual Property Alliance

Abstract

This report, Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy: The 2003-2007 Report, completed by Economists Incorporated, updates and supplements eleven earlier reports prepared for the International Intellectual Property Alliance (“IIPA”). This twelfth report presents estimates of the copyright industries’ contribution to the U.S. economy for the years 2003-2007, which reflects the most recent full-year data (2007) available at the time of the publication. This report demonstrates the continuing positive impact these industries have on the U.S. economy.

This study continues to reflect the use of industry data classifications adopted under the North American Industry Classification System (“NAICS”) which has now been widely implemented by U.S. statistical agencies. This report also continues to follow the international standards and recommendations propounded by the World Intellectual Property Organization (“WIPO”) in 2003 regarding the development of economic and statistical standards to measure the impact of domestic copyright industries on domestic economies.

Main Results of the Study

- From 2003 to 2007:

  • The GDP rose from $11.0T to $13.8T, with the value-added from copyright industries amounting to $889.1B in 2003 and rising to $1.52T by 2007.
  • The core copyright industries achieved annual growth rates in excess of 5.8% per year. These growth rates were considerably above the real annual growth rates achieved by the U.S. economy as a whole.
  • In 2003, the total copyright industries employed 11,205,700 people, and these workers comprised 8.62% of total U.S. employment. By 2007, total copyright industry employment rose by 504,900 to 11,710,600 workers. In 2007, workers in the total copyright industries comprised 8.51% of all U.S. employees, down slightly from 8.62% in 2003.
  • The average annual compensation paid to a core copyright industry employee in 2003 was $63,496. In 2007, the average compensation paid to a core copyright worker rose to $73,554 or 15.8%.
  • The revised and updated estimates of foreign sales and exports of selected core copyright industries portray continued growth on the whole with a somewhat mixed picture among the individual industries studied.

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

These consistently positive trends solidify the status of the copyright industries as a key engine of growth for the U.S. economy as a whole. As new technologies continue to support the development of new distribution methods for legitimate copyrighted products, the U.S. copyright-based industries represented in the IIPA remain optimistic that economic growth, combined with strong laws and effective enforcement, will continue to pave the way for economic growth in both the U.S. and global markets.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Datasets

Sample size: 5
Level of aggregation: Economic indicators
Period of material under study: 2003-2007