Morris, Johnson and Higgins (2009)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Morris, Johnson and Higgins (2009)
Title: The role of gender in predicting the willingness to engage in digital piracy among college students
Author(s): Morris, R. G., Johnson, M. C., Higgins, G. E.
Year: 2009
Citation: Morris, R. G., Johnson, M. C., & Higgins, G. E. (2009). The role of gender in predicting the willingness to engage in digital piracy among college students. Criminal Justice Studies, 22(4), 393-404.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
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About the Data
Data Description: Data stems from questionnaires submitted to university undergraduate students in criminology and criminal justice courses during the fall semester of 2006 from two medium-sized universities in the southern and eastern USA.

A total of 585 students completed questionnaires (67.4% were from the southern university). Most respondents were female (55.6%). Ethnicity closely resembled each university’s student body as a whole and each undergraduate classification was amply represented in the sample. The median age of respondents was 21 and most students reported being employed at least part time (67.8%).

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2006
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Abstract

Scholars have provided increased attention toward the issue of digital piracy in recent years; however, few studies have focused on the issue of gender in predicting digital piracy. This study explores the role of gender in predicting college students’ willingness to participate in varying forms of digital piracy (n = 585). The findings suggest that gender is not directly related to digital piracy when controlling for other factors. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the impact from existing theories of crime (social learning, self-control, techniques of neutralization, and microanomie) are equivalent across genders. A discussion is provided in the context of future theory development and in the development of policy implications geared toward curtailing digital piracy.

Main Results of the Study

  • Among the respondents in the sample, gender does not appear to be significantly related to the willingness to engage in digital piracy.
  • The impact from several robust theoretical predictors of digital piracy, including differential association, techniques of neutralization, microanomie, and self-control theory, do not appear to be motivated by gender. In fact, the impact from such predictors remained relatively similar.
  • Neutralizing attitudes toward digital piracy likely play a significant and substantive role in the decision to engage and continue participation in varying forms of digital piracy.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Existing theories of crime may apply similarly to makes and females in predicting digital piracy. This is important for the reason that strong policies aimed at curtailing digital piracy may not need to be gender specific, at least among college students.
  • Policy makers and researcher should consider attempts to curb digital piracy through conventional and digital modes of communication by educating prospective digital pirates about legal and fiscal issues in surrounding the issue. Anti-digital piracy programs could be developed and implemented through computer training courses beginning in elementary school.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
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Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 585
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2006