Al-Rafee and Cronan (2006)

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1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Al-Rafee and Cronan (2006)
Title: Digital piracy: Factors That Influence Attitude Toward Behavior
Author(s): Al-Rafee, S., Cronan, T. P.
Year: 2006
Citation: Al-Rafee, S., & Cronan, T. P. (2006). Digital Piracy: Factors That Influence Attitude Toward Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(3), 237-259.
Link(s): Definitive
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by: Chen and Yen (2011), Konstantakis, Palaigeorgiou, Siozos and Tsoukalas (2010), Kwan (2007), Robertson, Mcneill, Green and Roberts (2012)
About the Data
Data Description: 285 questionnaires were issued to undergraduate business students. The average age for the students in the sample was 23.5 years, 171 (58.6%) of which were male students and 121(41.4%) were female. The majority of the students(76.7%) were either in their junior or senior year.
Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • 2005
Funder(s):

Abstract

A new form of software piracy known as digital piracy has taken the spotlight. Lost revenues due to digital piracy could reach $5 billion by the end of 2005. Preventives and deterrents do not seem to be working – losses are increasing. This study examines factors that influence an individual’s attitude toward pirating digital material. The results of this study suggest that attitude toward digital pirating is influenced by beliefs about the outcome of behavior (cognitive beliefs), happiness and excitement(affective beliefs), age, the perceived importance of the issue, the influence of significant others (subjective norms), and machiavellianism. Given these results, measures can be developed which could alter attitudes toward digital piracy.

Main Results of the Study

  • The authors tested hypothesis whether Individual attitudes toward digital pirating is influenced by beliefs about the outcome of the behaviour. Happiness and excitement, age, the perceived importance of the issue, the influence of significant others, and Machiavellianism (a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain).
  • The study found that moral judgements, distress (judged using a distress scale) and sex were not significant in explaining peoples attitudes toward piracy.
  • Machiavellianism and cognitive beleifs were significant at 10% in explaining attitude toward piracy. So if people scored high on the machiavellianism scale they were more likely to view piracy more positively. Same with people who had more positive beleifs about piracy (cognitive beleifs)
  • Subjective norms, happiness/excitement, importance, and age were all significant in explainging differences in attitudes toward piracy. The younger and more happy/excited individuals had a more positive outlook on piracy. The attitudes of important people was also significant in explaining attitudes toward piracy, so if important people viewed piracy in a more acceptable light the person him/herself was more likely to view it favorably as well. Importance of the issue was also singificant in explaining attitude so if the issue was seen as important piracy was viewed less favourably

Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Adverts against piracy could work if they increase importance of the issue/item pirated and if they affect general attitudes toward piracy in a way that makes piracy a faux pas.
  • Changing attitudes of the young would be most effective way of decreasing piracy as they have the most favourable view of it.



Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: 285
Level of aggregation: University students
Period of material under study: 2005