Tzantzara and Economides (2010)

From Copyright EVIDENCE

Advertising Architectural Publishing of books, periodicals and other publishing Programming and broadcasting Computer programming Computer consultancy Creative, arts and entertainment Cultural education

Film and motion pictures Sound recording and music publishing Photographic activities PR and communication Software publishing (including video games) Specialised design Television programmes Translation and interpretation

1. Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare 2. Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)? 3. Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors) 4. Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption) 5. Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)

A. Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right) B. Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction) C. Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing) D. Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability) E. Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts) F. Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)

Source Details

Tzantzara and Economides (2010)
Title: Gender differences in digital music distribution methods
Author(s): Tzantzara, K., Economides, A. A.
Year: 2010
Citation: Tzantzara, K., & Economides, A. A. (2010). Gender differences in digital music distribution methods. Peer-to-peer networking and applications, 3(2), 161-171.
Link(s): Definitive,Definitive , Open Access,Open Access
Key Related Studies:
Discipline:
Linked by:
About the Data
Data Description: After a series of in-depth interviews, a detailed questionnaire of 30 questions was developed and published on several Greek popular forums, including forms concerning digital music.

More than 200 Internet users in Greece answered the questionnaire between August 2006 and October 2006. Most responders were male (87%). The majority of all both males (35.5%) and females (58.3%) were between 21 and 25 years old. Few makes (9.8%) and females (16.9%) were over 30 years old. Most had University education.

Data Type: Primary data
Secondary Data Sources:
Data Collection Methods:
Data Analysis Methods:
Industry(ies):
Country(ies):
Cross Country Study?: No
Comparative Study?: No
Literature review?: No
Government or policy study?: No
Time Period(s) of Collection:
  • August 2006 to October 2006
Funder(s):

Abstract

This study examines gender differences among Greek Internet users in using digital music distribution methods. First, a Web-based questionnaire was developed and placed on most popular Greek forums. Then, 300 Greek Internet users stated their opinions regarding digital music and the following downloading methods: 1) Http downloading, 2) P2P downloading, 3) Torrent downloading, and 4) Combined iTunes method. The results revealed that P2P programs are the first choice for downloading mp3. The responders were satisfied with the P2P’s easiness of use, the variety of songs and the no need to pay. However, they worried about P2P’s safety. Gender differences were identified in several areas. Music industry managers could consider these findings in their strategies to reach the consumers. Advertising companies could use the results to target differently male or female consumers.

Main Results of the Study

  • Gender differences were identified in the following areas:
  1. female Internet users are older than males;
  2. more females still use old internet connection technologies than males;
  3. females trust their computer knowledge less than males
  4. females use the Internet less frequently than males
  5. fewer females than males store their mp3 files
  6. females possess smaller number of stored mp3 files than males
  7. females use mp3 for different reasons than males
  • P2P is the most preferable method for both genders (54%).
  • Cost considerations weigh heavily on the decision to buy or pirate.


Policy Implications as Stated By Author

  • Since gender differences were found with respect to several issues, advertising and marketing companies could launch different campaigns for men and women.
  • Government should protect the artists’ intellectual rights developing legal measures and supporting digital copyright mechanisms (e.g. digital marketing) It should also support standards and interoperability in order to foster compatibility among the various files’ format, devices, downloading techniques, etc. It should protect the consumer with respect to music cost, personal data confidentiality, safety and security.


Coverage of Study

Coverage of Fundamental Issues
Issue Included within Study
Relationship between protection (subject matter/term/scope) and supply/economic development/growth/welfare
Relationship between creative process and protection - what motivates creators (e.g. attribution; control; remuneration; time allocation)?
Harmony of interest assumption between authors and publishers (creators and producers/investors)
Effects of protection on industry structure (e.g. oligopolies; competition; economics of superstars; business models; technology adoption)
Understanding consumption/use (e.g. determinants of unlawful behaviour; user-generated content; social media)
Green-tick.png
Coverage of Evidence Based Policies
Issue Included within Study
Nature and Scope of exclusive rights (hyperlinking/browsing; reproduction right)
Exceptions (distinguish innovation and public policy purposes; open-ended/closed list; commercial/non-commercial distinction)
Mass digitisation/orphan works (non-use; extended collective licensing)
Licensing and Business models (collecting societies; meta data; exchanges/hubs; windowing; crossborder availability)
Green-tick.png
Fair remuneration (levies; copyright contracts)
Enforcement (quantifying infringement; criminal sanctions; intermediary liability; graduated response; litigation and court data; commercial/non-commercial distinction; education and awareness)
Green-tick.png

Datasets

Sample size: More than 200"Morethan" can not be assigned to a declared number type with value 200.
Level of aggregation: Individual
Period of material under study: 2006